Updated: June 17, 2024

Read time: # mins

Mixtral of Experts

Title and Authors:

Title:
Mixtral of Experts

Authors:
Albert Q. Jiang, Alexandre Sablayrolles, Antoine Roux, Arthur Mensch, Blanche Savary, Chris Bamford, Devendra Singh Chaplot, Diego de las Casas, Emma Bou Hanna, Florian Bressand, Gianna Lengyel, Guillaume Bour, Guillaume Lample, Lélio Renard Lavaud, Lucile Saulnier, Marie-Anne Lachaux, Pierre Stock, Sandeep Subramanian, Sophia Yang, Szymon Antoniak, Teven Le Scao, Théophile Gervet, Thibaut Lavril, Thomas Wang, Timothée Lacroix, William El Sayed.

Abstract Summary:

Mixtral 8x7B is a Sparse Mixture of Experts (SMoE) language model that uses 8 experts per layer, selecting 2 experts per token dynamically. This model outperforms or matches Llama 2 70B and GPT-3.5 across various benchmarks, especially excelling in mathematics, code generation, and multilingual tasks.

Key Concepts:

  1. Sparse Mixture of Experts (SMoE)
  2. Router network for expert selection
  3. Multilingual pretraining
  4. Instruction fine-tuning
  5. Efficiency in parameter usage
  6. Comparative benchmarks with Llama 2 and GPT-3.5
  7. Reduced biases in language models
  8. Open-source model release under Apache 2.0 license

Problem Statement:

The main problem addressed in this paper is improving the efficiency and performance of large language models by using a Sparse Mixture of Experts (SMoE) architecture to reduce computational costs while maintaining or surpassing the performance of existing models like Llama 2 70B and GPT-3.5.

Methods and Techniques:

  1. Sparse Mixture of Experts (SMoE):
    • Each layer in the model contains 8 experts. For every token, a router network selects 2 experts to process the token. This allows the model to utilize a subset of parameters, enhancing efficiency.
  2. Router Network:
    • A gating mechanism that dynamically selects the top-K experts for each token using a softmax over the top-K logits of a linear layer.
  3. Multilingual Pretraining:
    • Training the model on a large, diverse multilingual dataset with a context size of 32k tokens to improve performance across different languages.
  4. Instruction Fine-Tuning:
    • Using supervised fine-tuning and Direct Preference Optimization (DPO) to enhance the model's performance in following instructions.
  5. Efficient Inference with Megablocks:
    • Utilizing specialized kernels and distributed processing techniques for efficient execution of the MoE layers.

Key Results:

  1. Performance Benchmarks:
    • Mixtral 8x7B outperforms Llama 2 70B and GPT-3.5 on various tasks including mathematics, code generation, and multilingual understanding.
    • Superior performance in specific benchmarks like GSM8K (mathematics) and MBPP (code generation).
  2. Efficiency:
    • Uses 5x fewer active parameters than Llama 2 70B while achieving higher or similar performance.
  3. Bias Reduction:
    • Demonstrates reduced biases and a more balanced sentiment profile in benchmarks such as BBQ and BOLD.

Contributions and Innovations:

  1. Sparse Mixture of Experts Architecture:
    • Efficient use of parameters by dynamically selecting a subset of experts for each token.
  2. Instruction-Tuned Model:
    • Fine-tuned variant (Mixtral 8x7B – Instruct) that surpasses GPT-3.5 Turbo and other models in human benchmarks.
  3. Open-Source Release:
    • Both base and instruct models are released under the Apache 2.0 license, promoting accessibility and further research.

Future Work:

The authors suggest further exploration in the following areas:

  1. Enhancing the routing mechanism to improve load balancing across experts.
  2. Investigating the impact of different expert selection strategies.
  3. Extending the model's capabilities to other domains and tasks.

Applications:

  1. Natural Language Understanding:
    • Enhanced performance in tasks requiring comprehension of large contexts and diverse languages.
  2. Code Generation:
    • Superior results in programming tasks, making it useful for automated code synthesis and completion.
  3. Mathematics:
    • High accuracy in solving complex mathematical problems, applicable in educational tools and scientific research.

Relevant Links:

Try 
Max
 right now

Up and running, for free, in 5 minutes.

Start in your terminal now

curl -s https://get.modular.com | sh -
Copy

By downloading, you accept our Terms.

Available now

Coming Soon

Context Windows

ML Systems

ML Systems

Context Windows

ML Systems

Context Windows

ML Systems

Context Windows

Models

Models

ML Systems

ML Systems

Models

Models

Models

ML Systems

ML Systems

ML Systems

Models

Models

Models

ML Systems

ML Systems

Models

Models

Models

ML Systems

ML Systems

Context Windows